Indirect Speech

DOLAYLI KONUŞMA 

1 –İngilizce Öğretmeni ( Bireysel – Kişiye Özel – İngilizce Öğretmeni )
2 –
İngilizce Öğretmeni ( 4 kişilik gruplara  – İngilizce Öğretmeni )

Hiç İngilizce bilmeyenlerden başlayarak genel  İngilizce, yds, ielts, proficiency ve toefl ibt, toefl pbt dersleri birebir özel ders şeklinde yada 4 kişiden oluşan homojen gruplarda verilir.

İngilizce gramerinin en önemli konularından bir olan dolaylı konuşma şeklinde Türkçeye çevirebileceğimiz bu konu İngilizce dil bilgisi konusunda çalışmalar yapanlara yararlı olur kanısındayım.

While reporting a speech, generally four things are changed according to the situation:

1.  The tense of the verb : If the reporting verb is in the past tense (such as I said that, He told me that,etc) the tense of the verb in direct speech becomes past in indirect speech but there  is not always an obligaiton to make changes,etc) The change of the tense of a verb is made by using the past of the helping verb if there is one, using the past tense of the main verb.

2.  Adverbs of time : When the tense of the verb is changed, adverbs of time also generally change.

3.  Adverbs of place
4.  Pronouns

 
1.  Changes in tense

Study the table.

DIRECT                   

I am happy.
She is sleepy.
They are working.
She will go.
You shall go.
I will be going at two.
She has gone.
They have done.
She has been doing.
She was sleeping.
She was at home.
They were there.
She likes tea.
She drank tea.
We had finished it before nine.
She can go.
She may go. (possibility)
You may go. (permission)
She has to go now.
They have to go now.
She had to go.

INDIRECT

He said that he was happy.
He said that she was sleeping.
He said that they were working.
He said that she would go.
He said that she should go.
He said that he would be going at two.
He said that she had gone.
He said that they had done.
He said that she had been doing.
He said that she was sleeping.
He said that she was at home.
or she had been at home.
He said that they were there.
or they had been there.
He said that she liked tea.
He said that she drank tea.
or she had drunk tea.
He said that they had finished it before nine.
He said that she could go.
He said that she might go.
He said that I was allowed to go.
He said that she had to go at once. (1)
He said that they had to go at once.
He said that she had to go.
or she had had to go.

She must be a spy.
She must do it now.
She must always work.
She must do it later.
Everybody neednt study law.
She neednt do it now.
She neednt do it tomorrow.

He said that she must have been a spy.
(deduction or possibility)
He said that she had to it then. (2)
He said that she must always work. (3)
He said that she would have to do it later. (4)
He said that everybody neednt study law.
He said that she didnt have to do it then.
He said that she wouldnt have to do it the nexy day.

 

 

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

 

2.  Changes in adverbs of time.

Study the table.

DIRECT
TIME
ago

at the moment
a year ago
last Monday
last month
last night
last year
yesterday
yesterday morning
the day before yesterday
next month
next week
next year
now
now and then (contrast)
the day after tomorrow
tomorrow
tomorrow afternoon
tomorrow night
this week (year,etc)
today yet

INDIRECT

earlier, previously, before
at the time
the previouse year, the year before
the Monday before
the previous month, the month before
the previous night, the night before
the previous year, the year before
the previous day, the day before
the previous morning
two days before, two days earlier
the following month, the month after
the following week, the week after
the following year, the year after
then, at the time, at the moment, at once, immediately, just then
(remains unchanged)
from time to time, occasionally
in two days time, two days after, two days later
the next day, the day after, the following day
the next afternnon
the next night, the following night
that week (year,etc)
that day, yesterday, the same day
by then

 

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

3.  Changes in adverbs of place

Study the table.

PLACE   here
       here and there (contrast)
       this place
       these places

there, in that place

(remains unchanged)
that place
those places

 

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech



4.  Changes in person

a.  If the speaker is reporting another persons speech, some pronouns used in direct speech, which express the first or the second person, become the third person.

Study the table.

I/you
we/you
me/you
us/you
mine/yours
ours/yours
myself/yourself
ourselves/yourselves
our/your
my/your

becomes  he/she
becomes  they
becomes  him/her
becomes  them
becomes  his/hers

becomes  theirs
becomes  themselves
becomes  their
becomes  his/her



b.  If the speaker is reporting the words said to himself or the group including himself, the personal pronouns expressing the second person become the first person.

Study the table.

you (subject) becomes I/we
you (object) becomes me/us
yours  becomes mine/ours
yourself  becomes myself
yourselves  becomes
your becomes my/our

c.  If the spekaer is the first person (I/we), the personal pronouns or their variants used in direct speech (I,me,my,mine,myself,we,us,our,ourselves)dont change in indirect speech.
‘’Have to’’ and ‘’must’’ in indirect speech

Look at he examples.

Direct : Jack said ‘’I must/have to do it now.’’ (1)
Indirect : Jack said that he had to do it then.

Direct : Rose said, ‘’Peter must be at home now.’’ (I think he is at home now/possibly he is at home now. (2)
Indirect : Rose said that Peter must be at home then.

Direct : Our teacher said,’’Everybody must do something for a living. (3)
Indirect : Our teacher said that everybody must do something for a living.

Direct : I have to pay my tax tomorrow. (4)
Indirect : He said he would have to pay his tax the following day.

Note :

a.  If a sentence with ‘’have to’’ or must expresses a present obligation, it changes into had(1). Must, expressing possibility or deduction remains unchanged(2). If it indicates continuous obligation or necessity, it doesnt change.(3) If it shows a necessity referring to the future, it changes into would have to in reported speech(4)
b.  Would, should, ought to and might remain unchanged.
c.  Need changes in the same way as must.
d.  ‘Perfect’ modal forms such as may have + past participle, must have + past participle dont change.

Exercise 1.  Fill in the blanks with the correct form of have to.

1  He says that everybody ………………………obey traffic rules absolutely.
2  Mary said that she ……………………hand in her thesis at the end of the month at the latest.
3  The teacher said they ……………………be silent during the exam.
4  Mary has said that she ……………………..pay her electricity bill today.
5  George says that they ……………………evacuate the shop within two weeks.
6  Tom said that he …………………join the army the following month.
7  Linda wants to know if she ………………..take a visa to come to Turkey.
8  Will you ……………………pay any money for your study at university?
9  Do you ………………make an appointment with your doctor beforehand?
10  My father warned met o pay my tax day otherwise I ……………………….pay a fine.

 

 

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

İngilizce Öğretmeni,direct indirect speech

 

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